Adeline Wrona est professeure à l’université Paris-Sorbonne, Celsa.

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Writings and digital technology

Head: Adeline Wrona

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The Celsa Gripic’s research team, played a pionnier part in the analysis of the “screen writings”, and receive today very many researchers and PHD students whose works explore the changes of the writing in link with the technology innovation. The objective of this pole is above all to develop research projects. Three main trends are already set : history of the writing and change of the computerized media; literature and literary mediations online; metamorphoses of the media writings.

With this in mind, four research orientations stand out.

1. The Application Programming Interface (API) as a writing system
Phd in progress (since 2013) of Samuel GOYET

Now in Laval, where he went with Milad Doueihi in the chair “Numerical cultures”, Samuel Goyet is Phd student in Co-supervision with Emmanuël Souchier (Gripic, Celsa), on the following themes: Leading function of the API Web public: the “make-text” of the computerized media.
The application program interfaces, or API (Programming Application Interfaces) are the formalization, in data-processing terms, -of the access to the data held by a company-, for example Google or Twitter.
They support an economic model and software but also they allow the production of increasingly widespread textual forms: Google Maps cards, tweet or video YouTube inserted directly in the body of a text… They are not only a primarily technical object, but they also have a leading function: they condition and control the aspect of the text to come. API and more precisely its documentation gives to read cultural conceptions of a text, technical, legal standards, recommendations of design.

2. New written mediations of the authority
Étienne Candel and Pergia Gkouskou

At the era of the digital expansion as a technology of writing, the authority is asked again in its link with the forms of legitimation which the investment in devices of promotion, auto—publication and socialization deploys. The evolution and the diffusion of the devices of digital writing are connected to the emergence of new media and the revelation of new actors in the fields of science, culture, art or politics.
Work is turned here towards the forms and the transformations of the scientific authority within the framework of media changes engaged by the digital networks.

A seminar coordinated by Étienne Candel and Pergia Gkouskou, “Computerized mediations of authority”, proposes an idea on the forms and the transformations of scientific authority within the framework of media changes engaged by the digital networks: how the “presence” in digital media space does impact authority? Which definitions are necessary to retain of this term, knowing the complexity of its history and the multiplicity of its forms? Which differences and which complementarities to think with today’s related concepts like “popularity”, “visibility”, “reputation”, etc? Are we witnessing the emergence of new standards of legitimation with an impact on decision making? Which articulations are established between the practices of auto-publication, auto-reporting, auto-promotion of the texts and the value of authority? Which is the point of view of the participants in digital spaces dedicated in publication of exchanges? Can digital spaces of publication and exchange between professionals, artists, arts persons or researchers contribute to the formation of new “authorities”? Which is the participants’s point of view in digital spaces of publication and exchange?

3. History of the writing, including screen writings
Project of Phd seminar coordinated by Emmanuël Souchier and Anne Zali, within the framework of the ED 5 (“Concepts and languages”), University Paris Sorbonne (year 2014-2015).

4. Architextes’s materiality, computerized writing’s objects and tools
Project of delegation of Étienne Candel for the year 2014-2015

Within the work of the current research on writings of screen, the significant and central concept of architexte makes one think about the invisible –impensé- (no thought) of the text in its industrial production and its partial determination by the tools used. But, while giving important elements to understand the form of the industrialisation of the culture‘s text, this concept deserves to be thoroughly questioned. The hardware equipments– the screen, the mobile phone, the central processing unit, the flagstone, the remote control, the video projector – are themselves, in a sens, produced by a writing, or, at the very least, they result from a construction. But to think this construction would be difficult without using almost metaphorical concepts as that of “text” (is there really a “text” of the screen, even extinct, as would tend to make it think the categories mobilized by the semioticians?) or that of “speech” (the material artifacts are really carrying “speech”?).

Far from being able to be thought on the same mode, the various forms which implies the production of a computerized object must confront glances and designs which are practices of meaning. Designers, marketers, originators, prescribers, ergonomicists, innovators – all these trades, and others still, are implied in the formation of objects which are supposed, by their presence and their uses, to mean, “speak”, “to say” their possible mobilizations; in the same way, they are supposed to be bought, and to show their desiderability.